ADHD – An Overview

ADHD is neither a “new” mental health problem neither is it a disorder created for the purpose of personal acquire or financial profit by pharmaceutical firms, the mental health area, or by the media. It’s a very real behavioral and medical disorder that impacts tens of millions of individuals nationwide. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), ADHD is without doubt one of the most typical mental problems in children and adolescents. In response to NIMH, the estimated number of children with ADHD is between three% – 5% of the population. NIMH also estimates that 4.1 percent of adults have ADHD.

Though it has taken quite some time for our society to accept ADHD as a bonafide mental health and/or medical disorder, in preciseity it is a problem that has been noted in fashionable literature for at the least 200 years. As early as 1798, ADHD was first described within the medical literature by Dr. Alexander Crichton, who referred to it as “Mental Restlessness.” A fairy tale of an obvious ADHD youth, “The Story of Fidgety Philip,” was written in 1845 by Dr. Heinrich Hoffman. In 1922, ADHD was recognized as Post Encephalitic Behavior Disorder. In 1937 it was discovered that stimulants helped management hyperactivity in children. In 1957 methylphenidate (Ritalin), grew to become commercially available to treat hyperactive children.

The formal and accepted mental health/behavioral diagnosis of ADHD is comparatively recent. In the early Sixties, ADHD was referred to as “Minimal Brain Dysfunction.” In 1968, the dysfunction became known as “Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood.” At this point, emphasis was placed more on the hyperactivity than inattention symptoms. In 1980, the analysis was changed to “ADD–Attention Deficit Dysfunction, with or without Hyperactivity,” which positioned equal emphasis on hyperactivity and inattention. By 1987, the dysfunction was renamed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Dysfunction (ADHD) and was subdivided into 4 classes (see below). Since then, ADHD has been considered a medical disorder that ends in behavioral problems.

Presently, ADHD is defined by the DSM IV-TR (the accepted diagnostic handbook) as one disorder which is subdivided into four classes:

1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Dysfunction, Predominantly Inattentive Type (previously known as ADD) is marked by impaired consideration and concentration.

2. Consideration-Deficit/Hyperactivity Dysfunction, Predominantly Hyperactive, Impulsive Type (formerly known as ADHD) is marked by hyperactivity without inattentiveness.

3. Consideration-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Mixed Type (the most typical type) entails all of the signs: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Not In any other case Specified. This class is for the ADHD disorders that embrace prominent signs of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity, however don’t meet the DSM IV-TR criteria for a diagnosis.

To additional understand ADHD and its 4 subcategories, it helps to illustrate hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention through examples.

Typical hyperactive signs in youth include:

Often “on the go” or appearing as if “driven by a motor”
Feeling restless
Moving fingers and ft nervously or squirming
Getting up regularly to walk or run around
Running or climbing excessively when it’s inappropriate
Having difficulty enjoying quietly or engaging in quiet leisure activities
Talking excessively or too fast
Often leaving seat when staying seated is anticipated
Typically can’t be involved in social activities quietly
Typical symptoms of impulsivity in youth embody:

Acting rashly or out of the blue without thinking first
Blurting out solutions before questions are totally asked
Having a difficult time awaiting a flip
Usually interrupting others’ conversations or activities
Poor judgment or selections in social situations, which outcome in the child not being accepted by his/her own peer group.
Typical signs of inattention in youth include:

Not taking note of details or makes careless mistakes
Having bother staying focused and being simply distracted
Appearing not to listen when spoken to
Usually forgetful in every day activities
Having trouble staying organized, planning ahead, and finishing projects
Shedding or misplacing dwellingwork, books, toys, or different items
Not seeming to listen when directly spoken to
Not following directions and failing to finish activities, schoolwork, chores or duties in the workplace
Avoiding or disliking tasks that require ongoing mental effort or concentration
Of the 4 ADHD subcategories, Hyperactive-Impulsive Type is probably the most distinguishable, recognizable, and the easiest to diagnose. The hyperactive and impulsive symptoms are behaviorally manifested in the various environments in which a child interacts: i.e., at residence, with associates, at school, and/or throughout extracurricular or athletic activities. Because of the hyperactive and impulsive traits of this subcategory, these children naturally arouse the attention (typically negative) of those round them. Compared to children without ADHD, they are more difficult to instruct, teach, coach, and with whom to communicate. Additionally, they’re prone to be disruptive, seemingly oppositional, reckless, accident prone, and are socially underdeveloped.

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